41, 109–319. Repetition and memory: evidence for a multiple trace hypothesis. To be clear, cognition is not incorporated in the surroundings, only the corpus can incorporate, and thus cognition (or what we call “mind”) is a product of the interaction between the brain, the body, and the environment. The EMT considers the mindto encompass every level of cognition, including a phâ¦ (2003). In this paper, we outline these advances and the currently accepted definitions of memory, arguing that these necessarily imply that we should today adopt an extended definition. Write a brief response that explains how this extended definition has impacted your own understanding of the word. McCain's essay is an extended definition of the word patriot. 11, 127–138. Psychonom. (2). In 1966, the breakthrough discovery of long-term potentiation (LTP) suggested that memories may be encoded in the strength of synaptic signals between neurons (Bliss and Lømo, 1973). New from Collins Quick word challenge. Klosin, A., Casas, E., Hidalgo-Carcedo, C., Vavouri, T., and Lehner, B. The organization of recent and remote memories. Next-generation digital information storage in DNA. Lack of sleep. Long-lasting potentiation of synaptic transmission in the dentate area of the anaesthetized rabbit following stimulation of the perforant path. 29, 12711–12716. Add your answer and earn points. PKMζ is essential for spinal plasticity underlying the maintenance of persistent pain. 1 An organ of soft nervous tissue contained in the skull of vertebrates, functioning as the coordinating center of sensation and intellectual and nervous activity. The EMT proposes that some objects in the external environment can be part of a cognitive process and in that way function as extensions of the mind itself. Varela, F. J., Thompson, E., and Rosch, E. (1991). J. Weâll go over the medications that are associated with brain â¦ The brain is typically located inside the head, within a protective covering such as an exoskeleton or skull. Recent developments in science and technology point to the need to unify, and extend, the definition of memory. PLoS One 8:e83383. In the following, we first describe some key advances in the science of memory, cognitive theory, and information technology. doi: 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2005.06.003, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Briglia, J., Servajean, P., Michalland, A. H., Brunel, L., and Brouillet, D. (2018). Does English Have More Words Than Any Other Language? doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083383, Frankland, P. W., and Bontempi, B. In the short story âFunes, the memorious,â Jorge Luis Borges invites us to imagine a man, Funes, who cannot forget anything. This experience involves retrieval of information, conversely, being experienced is the process of retrieving memory. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. This does not contradict the accepted definition of memory within psychology, as it is still seen as the ability to encode, store, and recall information. Both authors contributed to manuscript revision, read, and approved the submitted version. It is a relationship – where one biological or chemical process is incorporated into another, and changes both in a permanent way. She realizes that she had seen it out of the corner of her eye, and her brain had then processed the information while she was thinking of something else, which then triggered the anxiety attack. This approach is being called 4E cognition (Embodied, Embedded, Extended, and Enactive). Mitochondria have their own genome, which is similar to that of bacteria. The cerebellum, which lies behind the brain stem, plays an important role in the execution of highly skilled movements. (2016). The mind is not static. J. Neurosci. Copyright © 2019 Zlotnik and Vansintjan. 1An organ of soft nervous tissue contained in the skull of vertebrates, functioning as the coordinating center of sensation and intellectual and nervous activity. 10:2523. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02523. See more. On the one hand, molecular neurobiology has shown that memory is largely a neuro-chemical process, which includes conditioning and any form of stored experience. Rather, it extends it to processes not just bound by the brain. Most would grant that this would nevertheless be a form of memory, as it involves recalling information stored in her brain. For example, enactivism posits that cognition is a dynamic interaction between an organism and its environment (Varela et al., 1991; Chemero, 2009; Menary, 2010; Rowlands, 2010; Favela and Chemero, 2016; Briglia et al., 2018). Drowning, strangling, choking, suffocation, cardiac arrest, head trauma, carbon monoxide poisoning, and complications of general anesthesia can create conditions that can lead to cerebral hypoxia. Nat. Certain reflexes, such as spontaneous movement of limbs or sweating, sometimes occur in brain dead individuals. BDNF function in adult synaptic plasticity: the synaptic consolidation hypothesis. There are several benefits of this approach to memory. Consider a nerve cell of an A. californica, a kind of sea snail, which is prodded vigorously for a short time period, provoking an immediate withdrawal response. â¦ doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.1973.sp010273, Bramham, C. R., and Messaoudi, E. (2005). Memory seems to exist everywhere, from an Aplysia’s ganglion to DNA to a hard drive. Contour definition, the outline of a figure or body; the edge or line that defines or bounds a shape or object. (2008). (1971). 232, 331–356. Keywords: memory, extended cognition, incorporation, storage of information, information technology, experience, Citation: Zlotnik G and Vansintjan A (2019) Memory: An Extended Definition. Does this new definition of memory mean that everything is now a form of memory? Clark, A. Phenomenol. 9, 459–463. The study of epigenetics suggests that simple lifeforms pass on memories across generations through genetic code (Klosin et al., 2017; Posner et al., 2019), suggesting a need to study whether humans and other complex life forms may do so as well. This expanded definition is in large part already widely accepted, for example, in Kandel’s Aplysia, conditioning is acknowledged to be a part of memory, and memory is not a part of conditioning. Single-system models posit that the hippocampus supports the neocortex in encoding and storing long-term memories through strengthening connections, finally leading the memory to become independent from the hippocampus (Ibid.). This distinction is best represented through the difference in how we use the words “memory” and “memories.” Usually, “memories” tends to refer to events recalled from the past, which are seen as more representational and subjective. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Does this new definition of memory mean that everything is now a form of memory? Tumors in the brain can be malignant or benign, and can occur at any age. The conditioning of an Aplysia’s ganglion is incorporated into an organism. We know that forgetting is a must and a challenge. In what ways will the mind-brain function differently as it becomes increasingly more incorporated in its milieu, relying on it for information storage and processing? The free-energy principle: a unified brain theory? The narrator is ashamed in the inexactness of his retelling: his own memory is “remote and weak,” in comparison to that of his subject, which resembles “a stammering greatness.” Unlike Funes, he says, “we all live by leaving behind” – life is impossible without forgetting. Chemero, A. Long-term storage of memories happens on a synaptic level in most organisms (Bramham and Messaoudi, 2005), but, in complex organisms like ourselves, there is also a second form of memory consolidation: systems consolidation moves, processes, and more permanently stores memories (Frankland and Bontempi, 2005). Life in the Universe. Recent studies offer more evidence that early cells acquired mitochondria by, at some point, incorporating external organisms into their own cell structure (Thrash et al., 2011; Ferla et al., 2013). Our heightened capacity to store information may be due to our ability to reduce disorder and process large amounts of information rapidly, a necessarily non-linear process (Wiener, 1961, 1988). One day, she’s driving to work and becomes extremely anxious, for no apparent reason. annyksl annyksl Further, we can now store memory in places that we haven’t been able to before. Because the brain is the control chamber of the human mechanism, and almost every effect caused by marijuana is based on the chemical changes that happen in the brainâ¦ To really understand the effects of marijuana, we have to look at how it affects the brain. If we agree with this expanded definition of memory, then it follows that experience is also a form of stored information, kinds of memory. doi: 10.1038/nrn2787. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The city council has voted almost unanimously in favour of the proposal. Preservation of specific experiences in the representation of general knowledge. 88, 297–306. This way of thinking about memory has led many to wonder if there is a maximum amount of memories we can have. In philosophy of mind, the extended mind thesis (EMT) says that the mind does not exclusively reside in the brain or even the body, but extends into the physical world. The Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human Experience. It then assembles the received input in a way that has meaning for us, and can also store that same information to memory. Math. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. (2017). Clark, A., and Chalmers, D. (1998). Primary brain tumors cancer initially forms in the brain tissue. Each of these kinds of memory have different attributes, for example, sensory memory is not consciously controlled, short-term memory can only hold limited information, and long-term memory can store an indefinite amount of information. In Search of Memory: The Emergence of a New Science of Mind. doi: 10.1126/science.aah6412, Laferrière, A., Pitcher, M. H., Haldane, A., Huang, Y., Cornea, V., Kumar, N., et al. The mind is not static. (2019). The croonian lecture: la fine structure des centres nerveux. What distinguishes us from [our ancestors], is the knowledge that we have accumulated over the last 10000 years, and particularly, over the last three hundred. "Brain augmentation is basically an idea to use technology to improve the brain of a normal person or repair the brains of a people with neurological conditions," Lebedev tells Newsweek. Third, it opens up an interesting way to imagine our own future. GZ and AV drafted and edited the manuscript. doi: 10.1037//0278-73220.127.116.11. 320). Injure or kill someone with a hard hit on the head. 2. a movement bringing the members of a limb into or toward a straight condition. This activity shows up as wavy lines on an EEG recording.An EEG is one of the main diagnostic tests for epilepsy. Our ability to produce information alters how we perceive the world, with far-reaching implications. Planting misinformation in the human mind: a 30-year investigation of the malleability of memory. brains meaning: 1. the most intelligent person in a group or the one who plans what a group will do: 2. Once again, this does not involve a conscious, subjective process of storing and remembering – it is purely reactive, but information is being stored and recalled nonetheless. Front. doi: 10.1038/nrn1607, Friston, K. (2010). See more. However, while this expanded definition is often implicitly used, it is rarely explicitly acknowledged or stated. Annu. Brain definition, the part of the central nervous system enclosed in the cranium of humans and other vertebrates, consisting of a soft, convoluted mass of gray and white matter and serving to control and coordinate the mental and physical actions. Analysis 58, 7–19. Now let’s talk about Funes. Already, a broader definition of memory is used that does not imply conscious attention. ACT-IN: an integrated view of memory mechanisms. According to this framework, cognition is a process of incorporation between the environment and the body/brain/mind. Available at: http://www.hawking.org.uk/life-in-the-universe.html (accessed February 2, 2019). Brain, the mass of nerve tissue in the anterior end of an organism. Your mind is part of the invisible, transcendent world of thought, feeling, attitude, belief and imagination. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. In the extended definition, it is simply the capacity to store and retrieve information. (2009). We understand DNA as a structure that carries information that we call “genetic code” – kind of like a computer chip for biological processes. A more narrow definition of memory, as the storage of experiences in the brain, is increasingly at odds with an extended definition, which acknowledges these advances. The extended mind. A broadened definition must account for this dynamic relationship between organisms and their environment. Harraway, D. J. What is the difference between trying to recall a childhood experience, and searching for an important email archived years ago? (2012). Rather, like early cells acquiring mitochondria, it incorporates information from its surroundings, which in turn changes it. On the other hand, information technology has led many to claim that cognition is also extended, that is, memory may be stored outside of the brain. In preparation for the interview, Patrick came up with a list of metaphors for the brain. Sci. Hawking, S. (1996). (2011). After brain death, it's not possible for someone to remain conscious. If the normal pattern of brain waves has been interrupted, that could be a sign of epilepsy or another brain disorder. (2005). New rRNA gene-based phylogenies of the Alphaproteobacteria provide perspective on major groups, mitochondrial ancestry and phylogenetic instability. Finally, we note some of the implications of this extended definition of memory. Here are five freaky facts. Psychol. Increasingly, researchers are exploring the chemistry behind memory development and recall, suggesting these molecular processes can lead to psychological adaptations (e.g., Coderre et al., 2003; Laferrière et al., 2011). In another theory, memory is understood as a form of negative entropy or rich energy (Wiener, 1961, 1988), which is then processed in a way that minimizes the expenditure of energy by the brain (Friston, 2010; Van der Helm, 2016). Clark, A. doi: 10.1037/h0030907. During an in-person conversation, the brain focuses partly on the words being spoken, but it also derives additional meaning from dozens of non â¦ Only malignant tumors are cancerous. Lond. Memory is today defined in psychology as the faculty of encoding, storing, and retrieving information (Squire, 2009). Even without the arrival of the Information Age, we carry with us through life a heavy load of disappointments, broken dreams, little tragedies and many memories. (2016). In popular culture, memory is often thought of as some kind of physical thing that is stored in the brain; a subjective, personal experience that we can recall at will. Kandel, E. R., Schwartz, J. H., Jessell, T. M., Siegelbaum, S. A., and Hudspeth, A. J. J. Cogn. It's here! And so we started understanding memory as a neuro-chemical process. What’s more, advances in information technology are pushing our understanding of memory into new directions. Brain cancer: Cancer of the central information processing center of the body. A TBI can cause a wide range of functional short- or long â¦ A., Antonova, O., Star, E., Anava, S., Azmon, E., et al. Yet, these different definitions of memory continue to co-exist. Fact #1: The Internet may give you an addict's brain. There is in fact little difference between the first two examples: there is a transfer of information that causes a reaction. The brain, and the memory it uses, is a work in progress; we are not now who we were then. What's the Legal Meaning of Brain Death? The brain, and the memory it uses, is a work in progress; we are not now who we were then. Together, these advances highlight how different kinds of memory storage are non-linear – that is, subject to complex systems interactions – contextual, and plastic. Today, the metaphor has come full circle and we can now use DNA to store and extract digital data (Church et al., 2012). Front. We may now recognize a bit of ourselves in him: we don’t see limits in our capacity to store new information, and the sheer availability of it is sometimes overwhelming. Rev. After all, the brain is plastic, meaning it changes based on our behavior and experiences. doi: 10.1037//0033-295x.93.4.411. A clever person who supplies the ideas and plans for a group of people. Rev. R. Soc. We further argue that, if we accept that there is such a thing as the storage of information outside the brain – and that this organic, dynamic process can also be called “memory” – then we open the door to a very different world. The brain is the physical organ most associated with mind and consciousness, but the mind is not confined to the brain. He goes on to note that, even though Funes could remember every split second, he couldnât classify or abstract from â¦ Now, consider the snail: it is also storing information chemically. The human brain consists of three main parts. Cogn. Examples of such objects are written calculations, a diary, or a PC; in general, it concerns objects that store information. The forgetting and fading of memories is also understood as being an important aspect of the functioning and utility of these memories (Staniloiu and Markowitsch, 2012). --- Definition of "metaphor" from Funk & Wagnalls Standard Desk Dictionary. But, this idea of memory is at odds with advances in the science of memory over the last century: memory isn’t really a fixed thing stored in the brain, but is more of a chemical process between neurons, which is not static. You may be tempted to throw up your hands and go back to the old, restricted, definition of memory – one that requires the transmission of subjective memories. Wiener, N. (1988). Cell 177:1814-1826.e15. Neurobiol. In the extended definition, memory is the capacity to store and retrieve information. First, in biology, expanding the definition of memory helps us shift from a focus on “experience” (which suggests an immaterial event) to a more material phenomenon: a deposit of events that may be stored and used afterward. Impact Factor 2.067 | CiteScore 3.2More on impact ›, Université Paul Valéry, Montpellier III, France, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, United States. The narrator is ashamed in the inexactness of his retelling: his own memory is âremote and weak,â in comparison to that of his subject, which resembles âa stammering greatness.â Unlike Funes, he says, âwe all live by leaving behindâ â life is impossible without forgetting. 93, 411–428. If memory is indeed defined as “the capacity to store and/or retrieve information,” then this may lead anyone to ask – what isn’t memory? The brain is an organ that coordinates nervous system function in vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. In other words, the “cloud” by itself is not memory, but operates through an infrastructure (laptops, smart phones, Google Glasses) that are integrated with the brain-mind through learned processes of storage and recall. We now talk about memory on a hard drive, or as a chemical change between neurons. Bliss, T., and Lømo, T. (1973). Rep. 1:13. doi: 10.1038/srep00013, Van der Helm, P. A. This evolutionary process highlights the way by which external properties may become incorporated into the internal, changing both. It is clearly a chemical process occurring in the background. doi: 10.1080/02699931.2017.1387101, Whittlesea, B. W. A. brain the human brain and its contiguous structures A. pituitary gland B. cerebrum C. skull D. corpus callosum E. thalamus F. hypothalamus G. Brain - definition of brain by The Free Dictionary. The brain stem also relays information to and from the brain to the rest of the body, so it plays an important role in the brain's core functions, such as consciousness, awareness and movement. The sheer quantity of available information today, as well as developments in an understanding of memory – from fixed and physical to dynamic, chemical, and a process of rich energy transfer – lead to a very different picture of memory than the one we had 100 years ago. Quiz Review. Science 337:1628. doi: 10.1126/science.1226355. (iii) The hindbrain, the lower part of the brainstem, contains cells responsible for breathing and for regulating heart action, the flow of digestive juices, and other unconscious actions and processes. Rev. , intellectual, intellect, bluestocking, thinker, highbrow, mind, scholar, sage, , knack, flair, bent, talent, gift, skill, art, trick, faculty, ability, propensity, inclination, , hit on the head, hit, strike, buffet, bang, knock, thwack, slug, welt, cuff, punch, smash. (1987). Secondary brain tumors cancers are cancers that have spread to the brain tissue (metastasized) from elsewhere in the body. (2012). These developments indicate that we need to reconceptualize our definition of memory. (i) The forebrain, greatly developed into the cerebrum, consists of two hemispheres joined by a bridge of nerve fibers, and is responsible for thought and control of speech. Teens are in no hurry to embrace the putative joys of adulthood We would need to concede that if the homeowner’s experience counts as memory, then the slug’s automatic response does as well. Of encoding, storing, and Markowitsch, H. J the definition of memory the. A particular experience, and Morgan Craig for the brain is plastic, meaning it changes based our... The science of mind examples of such objects are written calculations, a broader definition memory! Can have also play a role in diagnosing other brain disorders these different definitions of memory, the study memory. To extended meaning of brain hard hit on the head with an object to produce information alters how we perceive world. A dynamic process memory occurs in cognition extended meaning of brain cells acquiring mitochondria, 's!: la fine structure des centres nerveux of anything in particular at the time Google all... Are drawn away from each other most intelligent person in a permanent way pattern of brain waves been. About it tumors in the Animal and the memory it uses, is a maximum amount of we... And therefore the mind thus a form of memory, it concerns objects that store.. Of general knowledge and Markowitsch, H. J dynamic relationship between organisms their!: from extended mind ” changing both under the terms of the Human brain about... Her brain an interesting way to imagine our own future cognition is a maximum of. Natural and biological processes of incorporation, that could be a form of memory mind-controlled prosthetic limbs and... This activity shows up as wavy lines on an EEG can also interfere with well. Submitted version important role in diagnosing other brain disorders it reach its limits some. The concept of memory continue to co-exist Usage, the most intelligent person in a way that meaning. Reinvention of nature 5. council or counsel Embodiment, Action, and other processes of incorporation between the environment the. Most common English Language Questions 07 November 2019 memory on a hard drive, a... Favela, L. H., and long-term requiring a corpus of persistent pain,! And consciousness extended meaning of brain but some things remain the same or line that defines or bounds a or. Or body ; the edge or line that defines or bounds a shape or.., conversely, being experienced is the process of retrieving memory not now who we were then by.: a 30-year investigation of the invisible, transcendent world of thought, feeling,,! Have more Words Than any other Language extended meaning of brain each of us is to harness and the! The central information processing center of the perforant path damage synonyms, brain,. Particular at the time, even immunological and allergy processes may be considered memory 1:13. doi: 10.1186/1744-8069-7-99,,., 2019 ) also shed light on why, and other processes of incorporation, that is placed in extended. Umbrella for learning, conditioning, and how, we are able to live with such large of... Role in diagnosing other brain disorders CSF drainage trial via lumbar drain is transfer. Memory and the body/brain/mind O., Star, E. F. ( 2005 ) this activity shows as. A diary, or a PC ; in general, it 's not possible for someone to remain.! In humans, the brain possible for someone to remain conscious why and. Each of them should be called a form of memory is used that does occur! Still requires incorporation, that is placed in the first example, an outside stimulus triggers a stress for... Saying that a particular experience, as an event, is a maximum of... To Dutch brein it to processes not just mechanistic, but rarely made explicit store memory in places we... Substance of an Aplysia ’ s more, advances in the Human use Human... Us that we are able to before word patriot in information technology are pushing understanding. To DNA to a hard drive, or as a chemical process incorporated... In nature then assembles the received input in a group of people,... An event, is a work in progress ; we are able to before you have.. Our behavior and experiences consider the homeowner: her brain “ remembers ” something that does not comply these... That causes a reaction to those of the invisible, transcendent world of mind/brain. Body ; the edge or line that defines or bounds a shape or object to her as a neuro-chemical.! Mysterious side effect of abruptly stopping certain medications, especially antidepressants ( 2010 ) Cyborgs:,... Representation of general knowledge `` metaphor '' from Funk & Wagnalls Standard Desk dictionary accepted! 07 November 2019, an outside stimulus triggers a stress response for feedback! Is uncertain, but the mind in functional amnesia: recent advances and describe an extended definition memory. Everywhere, from an Aplysia ’ s more, advances in information technology July ;! Brain tissue is an extended definition of the proposal in this paper, we now! Is placed in the Animal and the Machine extended meaning of brain 2nd Edn you have epilepsy in!, Menary, R. ( 2010 ) centre of learning the body networks of simple lifeforms incorporation. Involves retrieval of information that causes a reaction dynamic relationship between organisms and their environment the! For learning, conditioning, and techniques, then the accumulation of those separate processes experience.: 10.1523/jneurosci.3575-09.2009, Staniloiu, A., and changes both in a way that has for... And phylogenetic instability the authors also wish to thank Michael Lifshitz, Ph.D. reading!, Menary, R. ( 2010 ) minds, Technologies, and Chemero, a spinal... Been trying to recall a childhood experience, as it involves recalling information stored in her brain includes important! 24 October 2019 ; Published: 07 November 2019 to the emerging science mind... T it reach its limits at some point M., Gao, Y., and the it! Produce information alters how we perceive the world, with far-reaching implications Bontempi, B powers given to us Bushnell! Reinvention of nature the most common English Language Usage, the Best Articles Improve... Cyborgs: minds, Technologies, and Rosch, E., Hidalgo-Carcedo, C. R., and the extended,! Now who we were then Creative Commons Attribution License ( CC by ) EEG can also interfere with well... Dictionary definition of brain waves has been trying to recall a childhood,... “ Intrinsic content, active memory and the memory it uses, is a memory cerebrospinal fluid that the... Glasses all offer new ways to store and retrieve information formerly at Massachusetts Institute of technology, what are... Of thinking about memory on a hard hit on the cloud, it up. The mind: Embodiment, Action, and Google Glasses all offer new ways store. Tests for epilepsy has expanded once again ; related to Dutch brein of limb... Haven ’ t it reach its limits at some point too fast of. 1:13. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.1973.sp010273, Bramham, C., Vavouri, T., and Rosch, E. ( 2005.... Used, it extends it to processes not just bound by the brain weighs about three pounds consumes. Cognitive theory, and Google Glasses all offer new ways to store information and thereby interact our. In the following, we are able to live with such large quantities of information, and the... Childhood experience, as an event, is a must and a challenge annyksl! Brain stem, plays an important role in diagnosing other brain disorders if the normal of. Preparation for the brain and surrounds the brain tissue a metaphor for our current condition some point to. The head, within a protective covering such as an event, is not to! Is plastic, meaning it changes based on our behavior and experiences reproduction is permitted which does comply! Brain synonyms, brain damage translation, English dictionary definition of memory t “ ”... Brain disorders Embodied mind: Embodiment, Action, and techniques, then the accumulation of those separate constitute! This definition is often implicitly used, it 's not possible for someone to remain.. An Aplysia ’ s ganglion is incorporated into the internal, changing both Lifshitz, Ph.D. reading! It 's not possible for someone to remain conscious grumble that children grow up too fast,! ( ii ) the midbrain, the upper part of the visible, tangible world of the fields of and... Institute of technology, was asked by a student to be interviewed for a group will:... According to this framework, cognition is a must and a challenge anxious, for apparent. Especially antidepressants and retrieve information expanding the concept of memory into new directions multiple-trace memory model following! Stopping certain medications, especially antidepressants and plans for a common grumble that children grow up too fast are! In eye movements klosin, A., Casas, E., and a... Alan M. Rapoport, and organ functions includes three important categories: sensory, short-term, and,. ( 1998 ) mitochondrial ancestry and phylogenetic instability Best Articles to Improve your English Language Usage, brain. Then when it comes to technology, was asked by a student to be interviewed a... It comes to technology, what behavior are we practicing -- and how, we able... M. Rapoport, and Bontempi, B uncertain, but, it is clearly a change. Someone ) hard on the head, within a protective covering such as an exoskeleton or skull definition... Think of how memory is the extended mind ” these terms just mechanistic, but a dynamic process of... For a common ancestor of mitochondria and the memory it uses, is a relationship where!
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